The famous elegy by Gruffudd ap yr Ynad Coch on the death of Llywelyn, the last native prince of Wales, does not allude directly sicuro the crown of Britain, but calls him a crowned king (aur dalaith) whose death disrupts the cosmic order
Grooms, The Giants of Wales, pp. 241–316. Bower, Scotichronicon VIII, Bk 15, chs. 26–30 (pp. 95–111). R. R. 187–9. For example, mediante 1401–1402, Hugh Eddouyer (Hywel Glyn Dw Edwer) undertook several diplomatic missions for Owain, and John Trefor, sometime bishop ? r’s cause mediante 1405, served on diplomatic missions preciso of St Asaph, who defected sicuro Glyndw ? r Prince of Wales (Swansea, 1986; repr. 1996), p. 190. Scotland. Ian Skidmore, Owain Glyndw Bower, Scotichronicon II, Bk 3, ch. 34 (p. 65).
overlordship, and Arthur’s story becomes synonymous with English domination. Bower specifically equates the Britons, ‘Britannici generis’, with the Welsh, but by including the correspondence between Edward I, the Scots and the Pope during the First War of Independence, he also acknowledges the Plantagenet self-identification with the British myth.42 The elastic nature of this mythic world was undoubtedly one of its strengths. The kind of politics and the nature of identity vary significantly within these sources. Durante both Wales and Scotland, the Arthurian heritage provided an image of the past that could be used preciso comment on contemporary affairs and define the nature of identity. Scottish interpretations rejected the notion that Arthur conquered Scotland, although as descendents of the sons of Brutus they could see themselves as inheritors of Arthur’s kingdom. Welsh interpretations stressed the fact that they, as the original Britons (and not the English), were the true heirs esatto Arthur’s kingdom. Other poems invoke verso more Galfridian world-view by calling him verso ‘descendent of Beli’.43 There is a tradition that Llywelyn’s head was crowned with ivy when it was paraded through London, an act which mocked the prophecy which declared that Llywelyn would wear the crown of Britain.44 Edward I certainly took Llywelyn’s crown and an important relic, a piece of the Holy Ciclocampestre, and destroyed his royal seals. From verso symbolic point of view, these actions are more consistent with verso denial of Christian kingship, rather than Geoffrey’s British myth. Nevertheless, Llywelyn had invoked Geoffrey’s division of Britain per his dealings with the English king when he asserted his rights as the heir of Camber. This implied that Edward, as the heir of Locrinus, had some primacy which Llywelyn was willing to acknowledge.45 This position contrasts sharply with the Scottish response esatto Edward’s letter which denied that Historia Regum Britanniae gave him any right puro sovereignty sopra Scotland. After his death, Llywelyn does not ? r, seem preciso have attracted traditional material like his countryman, Owain Glyndw ? r was viewed as verso returning hero, or William Wallace, a Scottish equivalent. However this view changed somewhat per Humphrey Llwyd’s Chronica Walliae, written sopra 1584. Llwyd adopted the timeframe of the medieval Welsh chronicle tradition of the Brut y Tywysogion which began with Brutus’s heir, Cadwaladr the Blessed, and his sistema integrated Llywelyn into Geoffrey’s world-view. Arthur’s role is considerably diminished, but the history ends with Llywelyn unequivocally called the last of the native British line of Kings.46
Glyndw offering hope of eventual Welsh resurgence, while the response sicuro Llywelyn’s death as expressed in bardic poetry evoked images of cosmic disruption and despair
Bower, Scotichronicon V, Bk 9, ch. 56 (p. 171), ch. 61 (p. 185); VI, Bk 11, ch. 35–64 (pp. 99–189). ? r, 63–4, mediante Llawysgrif For example, Gruffudd ab yr Ynad Coch, 57–8, and Llygad Gw Hendregadredd, ancora. J. Morris-Jones and T. H. Parry-Williams (Cardiff, 1933). J. Beverley Smith, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Prince of Wales (Cardiff, 1998), pp. 332–4. Smith, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, pp. 335, 380–1, 543–6. Humphrey Llwyd, Chronica Walliae (1584), di nuovo. Ieuan M. Williams (Cardiff, 2002), pp. 66, 69 and 174.